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Urolithiasis in cats and cats

Urolithiasis in cats is the main cause of death of four-legged pets aged 1-6 years. At the same time, cats are 3 times less likely to become veterinarian patients than cats. The greatest predisposition was found in Persian cats and their mestizos. The ICD occurs in Maine Coons, Russian blue, Burmese, Siamese, Cartesian cats.

What is ICD?
With a disease, sand forms in the kidneys and bladder, and then stones, the basis of which are salts.

Blockage of the urethra prevents the outflow of urine, which leads to:

– painful urination;
– the development of renal failure;
– delayed waste, intoxication and death.
Urolithiasis in cats is detected much more often due to the special structure of the urethra. It is narrow and has a curved shape, so even small crystals pose a danger. Salt is also found in cats, but their presence less often leads to blockage of the urethra.

In most cases, crystals in the kidneys form phosphorus salts, or phosphates. In this case, crystallization of salts is possible only if there are three factors. The first is an excessive concentration of salts, the second is the presence of crystallization nuclei (desquamated bladder cells, or bacteria). The last condition is the alkaline environment of the urethra, or the alkaline pH of the urine. Sometimes the formation of phosphates (or struvites, as they are also called) is preceded by infectious diseases.

Oxolates are the second type of stones that is less common. The reason for the formation is an increase in the concentration of calcium and (to some extent) an acidic environment.

Causes and signs of urolithiasis in cats
There is no single reason that takes responsibility for the occurrence of the disease. Researchers have expressed many versions. Among the likely factors:

1. Inadequate fluid intake and low quality drinking water.
2. Change in urine pH.
3. Unbalanced feed, which is the root cause of improper metabolism. Everything is simple here – the cat is trying to compensate for the lack of calories in cheap feeds by volume, thereby increasing the dose of salts and minerals in the body.
4. Obesity, urinary tract infections, systemic diseases.
5. Genetic predisposition.
In cats, one of the prerequisites is hormonal imbalance. Among the indirect causes are low mobility, hypothermia or high ambient temperature, allergies.

How is urolithiasis manifested in cats? The pet becomes anxious and restless. He sits for a long time on the tray, but each time the amount of urine decreases. The cat is reluctant to move and practically does not eat, after a few hours he begins to urinate in different parts of the apartment. After a few more hours, the liquid begins to drop out. Now she is already brown, with impurities of blood. The final stage – urination stops, the animal falls into apathy. If you don’t show the four-legged friend to the doctor in time, after 24-36 hours, the absorption of waste from urine into the body will begin.

You can determine the disease in the later stages by palpation. Palpating a cat in the abdomen, you can feel the enlarged bladder – a volumetric elastic formation the size of a tennis ball.

urolithiasis in cats
Urolithiasis in cats: symptoms and treatment
Often the disease is asymptomatic, and it is detected by chance during an ultrasound of the bladder. The process of sand formation can take several years.

Early symptoms
With urolithiasis in cats, the symptoms are varied:

– a sharp unpleasant smell of urine;
– tense posture when going to the toilet;
– lethargy, weight loss;
– frequent or long trips to the toilet;
– Permanent licking of the genitals.
urolithiasis in cats treatment
Diagnostics
The specialist will be able to make a diagnosis after examining the animal, conducting an ultrasound or x-ray examination. Urine analysis is very informative. Cystitis in cats can be determined by pH, the amount of protein, by microscopic examination of sediment.

There are two ways to collect fluid for analysis.

The first is to empty and wash the tray. The second is to purchase special granules for collecting urine (similar in appearance to filler). They are sold with the test tube.

Treatment
How to treat urolithiasis in cats? The primary task of the veterinarian is to restore the outflow of urine.

If the disease is detected on time and an insignificant amount of sand is found in the animal, the doctor prescribes medication. Symptoms are eliminated with painkillers, and special anti-inflammatory, strengthening drugs are prescribed to dissolve the sand. If infection is detected in parallel, antibiotics are taken.

The following tasks are set:

– change the acidity of urine;
– dissolve the dangerous precipitate and remove it from the body;
– eliminate the appearance of an ailment in the future.
If the animal gets to the doctor in serious condition, the blockage of the urethra is first eliminated.

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